Thursday, 23 November 2017

What Happens If a Laptop Battery Is Overcharged?

It isn't possible to overcharge a laptop battery. Leaving your computer plugged in after it is fully charged doesn't overcharge or damage the battery. However, it is possible to take steps to optimize the battery life of your laptop.
Lithium-Ion Batteries
Most modern laptops use Lithium-ion batteries. These batteries can be charged hundreds of times without affecting the battery life. They have an internal circuit that stops the charging process when the battery is fully charged.
The circuit is necessary because without it the Li-ion battery could overheat and possibly burn as it charges. A Lithium-ion battery shouldn't get warm while it is in the charger. If it does, remove it. The battery may be defective.
Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries
Older laptops use Nickel-cadmium and Nickel metal hydride batteries. These batteries require more maintenance than Lithium-ion batteries. NiCad and NiMH batteries must be fully discharged and then fully recharged once a month for optimal battery life. Leaving them plugged in after they are fully charged doesn't affect the battery life appreciably.
Mac Notebook Batteries
Apple's MacBook, MacBook Air, and MacBook Pro come with non-replaceable lithium polymer batteries to provide maximum battery life in a compact space. To check the health of the battery, hold down the Option key while you click the battery icon in the menu bar.
You'll see one of the following status messages:
Ÿ   Normal
Ÿ   Replace Soon - The battery is functioning normally but holds less charge than it did when it was new.
Ÿ   Replace Now - The battery is functioning normally but holds significantly less charge than it did when it was new. You can still use your computer, but if its performance is affected, take it to an Apple authorized service technician to replace the battery.
Ÿ   Service Battery: The battery isn’t functioning normally. You can use the Mac when it's connected to a power adapter, but you should take it to an Apple Store or Apple-authorized service provider as soon as possible.
Saving Battery Life in Windows 10
Ÿ   The new Windows 10 Battery Saver kicks in automatically when the battery reaches 20 percent of battery life. Depending on your settings, the computer will lower the screen brightness at this time to preserve battery life. To find it, select System from the Settings and then Battery Saver.
Ÿ   You can make changes to the Power Plan screen to preserve battery life. This is the screen where you set the number of minutes of inactivity that elapse before the laptop dims or powers down. Lower numbers reduce battery use. The Power Plan screen is located at Settings > System > Power & Sleep.
Ÿ   If you don't need the internet for a while, you can turn off Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connections to save battery power. The easiest way to do this is to activate the Airplane Mode, located at Settings > Network & internet > Airplane Mode (or Flight mode).
Tips for Maximizing Battery Life
Ÿ   Charge a new laptop computer for at least 24 hours before using it.
Ÿ   Lithium-ion batteries last the longest if they stay between 20 and 80 percent charged.
Ÿ   Remove the battery if you use the laptop plugged into the wall most of the time.
Ÿ   If you won't be using the laptop for a month or more, remove the battery. If you don't have a removable battery, run the charge down to 50 percent before storage.
Ÿ   The battery will drain in storage. If it sits uncharged for long, it can be damaged. Occasionally charge the battery during lengthy storage times.
Ÿ   Avoid extremely hot or cold temperatures. Don't leave your laptop in the car on a summer day or during a winter blizzard.

Ÿ   Adjust the keyboard lighting, sleep settings, and screen brightness downward for better battery life.

Keyboard Shortcuts

Every time I have to take my hand off the keyboard, it costs me a few seconds. This may not sound like much, but it adds up over the course of a day. Instead, I like to keep my hands on the keyboard. With a little memory work and the right tools, you can save time to boost productivity.
The trick is to use keyboard shortcuts. They are combinations of simultaneous key presses that perform specific actions that might otherwise require pointing and clicking multiple times.

Here List How To Learn System-Wide Keyboard Commands
For example, on the Mac, these keyboard shortcuts generally work in every program:
Command-,    Set the application preferences
Command-A         Select all text
Command-B         Bold the selected text or turn on the bold style
Command-C         Copy the selected text to the clipboard
Command-F   Find text
Command-G         Find next occurrence of text
Command-I    Italicize the selected text or turn on italic style
Command-N         Create a new file
Command-O         Open an existing file
Command-P   Print a file
Command-Q  Quit the current application
Command-R         Preview the elected document
Command-S   Save a file
Command-T   Show the available fonts
Command-V         Paste the text from the clipboard
Command-W  Close the current window
Command-X         Cut (and delete) the selected text but places it on the clipboard
Command-Z   Undo the last action

This just scratches the surface. You can find numerous online references with a complete list of shortcut keys. Every time your hand comes off the keyboard to grab the mouse, consider it a penalty. And while you’re at it, think how you can create a keyboard shortcut using this method to avoid ever having to do it again.

Wednesday, 22 November 2017

8 quick ways to clear up drive space in Windows 10

Face it: No matter how large your hard drive is -- how many empty terabytes you had when you first bought your PC -- you always seem to fill it right to the brink.
If you're bumping up against your PC's physical storage limit, there are some quick tricks you can use to reclaim a couple of gigs. But these options will only take you so far -- if you need a lot of space, you may need to upgrade your hardware or consider deleting a few of those raw image files.
Empty the Recycle Bin
When you delete items, like files and photos, from your PC, they don't immediately get deleted. Instead, they sit in the Recycle Bin and continue to take up valuable hard-drive space. To empty the Recycle Bin, go to your desktop, right-click on the Recycle Bin and click Empty Recycle Bin. You will see a warning pop-up asking if you are sure you want to permanently delete your Recycle Bin items. Click Yes to proceed.
Disk Cleanup
Windows has a built-in disk cleanup utility (aptly named Disk Cleanup) that can help you clear up space by removing various files -- including temporary internet files, system error memory dump files, and even previous Windows installations that may still be hanging out from your recent move to Windows 10.
You can find Disk Cleanup in the Start menu, under All apps > Windows Administrative Tools > Disk Cleanup. Select the drive you want to clean up and hit OK, then wait while Disk Cleanup calculates how much space you can free up. If you want to delete system files, such as the Windows.old folder (which holds your previous installations of Windows, and can be several GB in size), click Cleanup system files.
Delete temporary and downloaded files
You can delete temporary files without running Disk Cleanup, along with files you downloaded that you may no longer need. Go to Settings > System and click on Storage on the left panel. Next, click This PC at the top and then click Temporary files from the list. Check the boxes for Temporary files and Downloads folder (and Empty recycle bin while you're at it) and then click the Remove files button.
Turn on Storage Sense
If you have updated to Windows 10 Creators Update, then let Windows help out with freeing up disk space. Head back to the Storage page in Settings and toggle on Storage sense. Now, Windows will automatically delete unused temporary files, as well as files that have been in the Recycle Bin for more than 30 days. I'm pretty good with emptying the Recycle Bin on something approaching a regular schedule, but I'm also very happy to have Windows track down and eradicate needless temp files.
Save files to a different drive
If your computer has multiple hard drives or a partitioned hard drive, you may find yourself running out of space on one drive (or partition). Luckily, you can fix this by changing your default save locations for apps, documents, music, pictures, and videos. To do this, open the Settings menu and go to System > Storage. Under Save locations, select a different drive for each of the categories. You can select any drive -- even a removable drive, like a USB flash drive or a memory card -- that is connected to your PC.
Disable hibernate
Instead of shutting down your computer completely, you can put it in hibernate -- a quasi-shutdown state that allows you to startup faster. When your computer goes into hibernate, it saves a snapshot of your files and drivers before shutting down, and this takes up space. If starting up quickly isn't your priority, you can reclaim some valuable hard drive space by disabling hibernate altogether, because the hiberfil.sys file takes up 75 percent of your PC's installed RAM. This means that if you have 8GB of RAM, you can clear up 6GB instantly by disabling hibernate.
Uninstall apps
You probably have some apps and programs on your PC that you don't use -- either apps you've installed and forgotten about, or bloatware that came preinstalled on your computer from the manufacturer. To find out which apps are taking up space, open the Settings menu and go to System > Apps & features and choose Sort by size. To uninstall an app from this menu, click the app and then click Uninstall.
If you're running legacy programs on Windows 10, you may not see them in this list (some appear, but some do not). To find these programs, right-click the Start button and click Control Panel. Go to Programs and Features to see a list of the legacy programs on your computer (you can also sort this list by program size). To uninstall a program from this list, left-click it to select it and click Uninstall.
Store files in the cloud -- and only in the cloud
If you take advantage of cloud storage via OneDrive or another service, you're probably double-storing files and photos. Well, you don't have to do this -- all cloud storage services allow you to select which folders are actually downloaded and saved to your PC (as well as in the cloud).

Right-click on the OneDrive icon in your system tray and choose Settings. In the Account tab, next to Choose folders to sync to this device, click Choose folders. Select the folders you want to sync (read: save directly) to your device, and deselect any folders you do not want to sync to your device. When you're finished selecting or deselecting folders, click OK. The folders you did not select to sync to your device will be removed from your hard drive, freeing up space. You will still be able to access the files in these folders from the OneDrive site in any Web browser; they just won't be saved on your hard drive.

Right Way To Charge Your Phones

Wish you'll never be stuck with a dead phone again.
To extend the battery's useful life for as long as possible, you need to take care of your device properly. That means adopting good charging habits and taking care with battery storage. Here list the information that you need to know.
1.The information of lithium-ion batteries
When the battery is charging, positively-charged lithium ions move from one electrode, called the cathode, to the other, known as the anode, through an electrolyte solution in the battery cell. That causes electrons to concentrate on the anode, at the negative side. When the battery is discharged, the reverse happens. As for those electrons, they move through circuits that are external to the battery, providing juice.
Those electrons actually supply the energy for your phone or tablet—or in the case of Tesla, your entire home.
2.Charging and recharging
How do you make your lithium-ion battery last as long as possible? You may have heard you need to do a full charge and discharge when your device is right out of the box—but this doesn't really matter on modern batteries. What matters most is how you charge your phone after you've started using it.
Shallow discharges and recharges are better than full ones, because they put less stress on the battery, so it lasts longer. If you do fill your battery all the way up, don't leave the device plugged in. Instead, follow the shallow discharge and recharge cycle we just mentioned. This isn't a safety issue: Lithium-ion batteries have built-in safeguards designed to stop them from exploding if they're left charging while at maximum capacity.
3.General care
Something else lithium-ion batteries don't like are extreme temperatures. Whenever possible, you should avoid leaving phones in hot cars or in chilly rooms, because these temperature extremes won't do their batteries' lifespans any favors. You should particularly watch out for overheating during charging, this shouldn't be an issue.
As another precaution, you should also make sure you're using the official charger that came bundled with your phone or tablet, or you should invest in an exact replacement. This will guarantee that the charger is safe to use with your device's battery, and optimized to charge it as efficiently as possible. The official charger will apply the best practices for your battery's general health.

The documentation that comes with your device should include more tips and advice, so read through it all carefully for any extra guidelines on treating your batteries as kindly as possible. Apply this little bit of extra care, and you should find the battery inside your phone or laptop lasting at least until you're ready for an upgrade.

Tuesday, 21 November 2017

What Data Does Android Back Up Automatically?

Much of the data on your Android phone or tablet is backed up by Google (or the individual apps you use) automatically, but what is being saved for you, and what do you need to save for yourself?
We’ll explain exactly what data is backed up automatically and what isn’t, so you can rest easy knowing your data is safe—or take steps to back up some application data on your own.
What Google Backs Up Automatically
Google has a service built into Android, aptly called Android Backup Service. By default, this service backs up most types of data you care about and associates it with the appropriate Google service, where you can also access it on the web. You can see your Sync settings by heading into Settings > Accounts > Google, then selecting your Gmail address.
Contacts,Email, Docs, and Calendars: Your Android contacts are synced with your Google contacts online (you can access these contacts from Gmail or on the dedicated Google Contacts page), your email is safely stored in your Gmail account, and calendar events are synced with Google Calendar.
Some System Settings: Android also synchronizes some system settings—for example, Android stores saved passphrases for Wi-Fi networks and retrieves them on each Android device you use. It also backs up display settings, like brightness and timeout length.
Chrome Browser Data: If you use the Chrome browser, your bookmarks synchronize with your Chrome sync account.
Hangouts Chat Logs: Hangouts chat logs are stored in your Gmail account, assuming you haven’t disabled chat logging in Gmail.
Apps and Other Purchased Content: Any apps you have purchased (or installed) are linked with your Google account. When you set up a new Android device (or enter your account after resetting your Android device to factory default settings), Android will offer to automatically download and install the apps you previously had installed. You can also view apps you have previously installed in the Play Store, so you won’t forget which apps you have used (or purchased). Other content you purchase from Google Play is also tied to your Google account.
Some Third-Party App Data: Third-party apps often, but not always, sync their data with web services. If you have an app containing data important to you, be sure to check whether it syncs data online before wiping or getting rid of your phone.
Smart Lock Password Data: If you use Chrome on your computers and have Smart Lock for Passwords enabled, then your saved passwords will not only sync across Chrome on mobile, but also to some apps. For example, if you have your Netflix password saved in Smart Lock for Passwords, it will automatically be available in the app on your Android devices.
Photos: If you use Google Photos, then you could also back your photos up to Google’s servers. Unlike most of the others on this list, this feature has to be enabled before it just happens—fortunately, we’ve got you covered on setting that up, too. There’s also a “Photos Backup” entry in the Backup & reset menu on Android Nougat.
This isn’t an exhaustive list, but it should give you some idea of what’s backed up automatically. Google includes the most important things, so you don’t need to worry about losing your email, contacts, apps, saved Wi-Fi passphrases, or even most passwords.
What Google Doesn’t Back Up
Now that we’re covered what Google does automatically back up, let’s take a look at what they don’t:
SMS Messages: Android doesn’t back up your text messages by default. If having a copy of you text messages is important to you, follow our guide on backing up text messages to your Gmail account.
Google Authenticator Data: For security reasons, Google doesn’t synchronize your Google Authenticator codes online. If you wipe your Android device, you’ll lose your ability to perform two-factor authentication. You can still authenticate via SMS or a printed authentication code and then set up a new device with new Google Authenticator codes.
Custom Settings, Bluetooth Pairings, and Security Data: When you set up a new phone or factory reset yours, you’ll have to repair all of your Bluetooth accessories, set up specific settings (like which notifications to block, for example), and re-enter all of your security data, like lock screen passwords and fingerprints.
Make sure, before you reset or sell your phone, that you have any of these items backed up manually if you want them.

The Gray Area of Backups
Like with most things, there is a gray area here: things that can be backed up, but are also contingent on other variables—like developer integration in third-party apps, for example.
Game Progress: The Android Backup Service allows developers to back up their data and have it automatically restored in the future. However, you’ll find that some games may not take advantage of this feature. This feature is independent for each game, so do your research before you lose everything upon switching devices or performing a factory reset.
App Settings: Many other app settings aren’t backed up by default. Whether it’s preferences in an app you use or alarms you’ve created in the Clock app, they probably aren’t backed up online. Some third-party apps contain backup features that export the app’s data to a local file, which you must then keep track of manually (perhaps by uploading it to Google Drive). Again, this is going to be individual for each app.
Again, if there’s anything important you want to keep in one your apps, consult the app’s settings or documentation to figure out whether it backs up automatically or not. In some cases, you may have options to back up your data manually and bring it to your new device in the form of a file.
Full Phone Backups
Most people shouldn’t have to back up their Android phone or tablet manually—Android’s default backup features should be more than good enough. However, some people may want to back up data that Android doesn’t back up by default: game saves, app settings, or whatever else.

If you want to back up and restore your Android data manually, you have a couple options:
Titanium Backup: Titanium Backup is the granddaddy of backup apps. You can use the free version of Titanium Backup, but for everything the app has to offer (and features you’ll likely want), you’ll have to shell out $6.00 for the Pro version of the app. It’s also not for everyone, as it does require root access. For a closer look at what Titanium Backup can do (and how to use it), head here—note that this post is a little dated looking, but all the functionality is still the same.
Android’s Hidden Local Backup Feature: Android has a built-in backup and restore feature that doesn’t require root, but this feature is hidden. You have to perform a backup or restore by connecting your device to your computer and running a command.
In short, Android already backs up the most important things by default, but be sure to enable Photo Uploads so you have a backup copy of your pictures! Advanced users may want to use a local backup tool, but most people shouldn’t need to, as it’s not that difficult to start from scratch after performing a factory reset.

Make Wireless Keyboard

How to make a wireless keyboard? This question is a bit difficult. There are many applications available on the Android App Store, with the help of a lot of computer work from mobile phone. Such as creating a wireless computer mouse, accessing any computer remotely from a smartphone or using the cloud storage technology to share data. All work is done very easily with mobile. There is also a lot of apps and tricks for wireless keyboard, which can be used by mobile to make wireless keyboard.

How to make Mobile Wireless Keyboard ?

One of these is the Virtual Virtual Keyboard Keyboard. This is a Best Wireless Keyboard App which can be used to help Mobile Wireless Keyboard. But some of these Requirements and Conditions, which can be used only after completion.

Step 1. First of all, you must install Intel Remote Host Software Download in Computer. Because this software works as a keyboard receiver. If it is not installed in Computer then Keyboard never connect to computer.

Step 2. Install the Intel Remote Keyboard App in the Smartphone after installing the software. Mobile Wireless Keyboard can be made by this app.

Step 3. After doing both the work on the Intel Host Open on the computer, there will be a QR Code show here, open the Intel Remote Keyboard app in Mobile and scan the QR Code until the OK sign.

Step 4. After the Mobile and PC Connect, you are ready to use the Mobile Wireless keyboard. Now whatever you give input from the Mobile Keyboard, your PC will get it.

Mobile Wireless Keyboard is very easy to make. But Computer Keyboard Keys arrangement is a bit different.

Monday, 20 November 2017

What’s the Difference Between TCP and UDP?

You’ve probably seen references to TCP and UDP when setting up port-forwarding on a router or when configuring firewall software. These two protocols are used for different types of data.

TCP/IP is a suite of protocols used by devices to communicate over the Internet and most local networks. It is named after two of it’s original protocols—the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). TCP provides apps a way to deliver (and receive) an ordered and error-checked stream of information packets over the network. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is used by apps to deliver a faster stream of information by doing away with error-checking. When configuring some network hardware or software, you may need to know the difference.

What They Have In Common

Both TCP and UDP are protocols used for sending bits of data—known as packets—over the Internet. Both protocols build on top of the IP protocol. In other words, whether you’re sending a packet via TCP or UDP, that packet is sent to an IP address. These packets are treated similarly, as they’re forwarded from your computer to intermediary routers and on to the destination.

TCP and UDP aren’t the only protocols that work on top of IP. However, they are the most widely used.

How TCP Works

TCP is the most commonly used protocol on the Internet.

When you request a web page in your browser, your computer sends TCP packets to the web server’s address, asking it to send the web page back to you. The web server responds by sending a stream of TCP packets, which your web browser stitches together to form the web page. When you click a link, sign in, post a comment, or do anything else, your web browser sends TCP packets to the server and the server sends TCP packets back.

TCP is all about reliability—packets sent with TCP are tracked so no data is lost or corrupted in transit. This is why file downloads don’t become corrupted even if there are network hiccups. Of course, if the recipient is completely offline, your computer will give up and you’ll see an error message saying it can’t communicate with the remote host.

TCP achieves this in two ways. First, it orders packets by numbering them. Second, it error-checks by having the recipient send a response back to the sender saying that it has received the message. If the sender doesn’t get a correct response, it can resend the packets to ensure the recipient receives them correctly.

How UDP Works

The UDP protocol works similarly to TCP, but it throws out all the error-checking stuff. All the back-and-forth communication introduce latency, slowing things down.

When an app uses UDP, packets are just sent to the recipient. The sender doesn’t wait to make sure the recipient received the packet—it just continues sending the next packets. If the recipient misses a few UDP packets here and there, they are just lost—the sender won’t resend them. Losing all this overhead means the devices can communicate more quickly.

UDP is used when speed is desirable and error correction isn’t necessary. For example, UDP is frequently used for live broadcasts and online games.

For example, let’s say you’re watching a live video stream, which are often broadcast using UDP instead of TCP. The server just sends a constant stream of UDP packets to computers watching. If you lose your connection for a few seconds, the video may freeze or get jumpy for a moment and then skip to the current bit of the broadcast. If you experience minor packet-loss, the video or audio may be distorted for a moment as the video continues to play without the missing data.

This works similarly in online games. If you miss some UDP packets, player characters may appear to teleport across the map as you receive the newer UDP packets. There’s no point in requesting the old packets if you missed them, as the game is continuing without you. All that matters is what’s happening right now on the game server—not what happened a few seconds ago. Ditching TCP’s error correction helps speed up the game connection and reduce latency.

So What?

Whether an application uses TCP or UDP is up to its developer, and the choice depends on what an application needs. Most apps need the error-correction and robustness of TCP, but some applications need the speed and reduced overhead of UDP.

Unless you’re a network administrator or software developer, this shouldn’t doesn’t affect you too much. If you’re configuring your router or firewall software and you’re not sure whether an application uses TCP or UDP, you can generally select the “Both” option to have your router or firewall apply the same rule to both TCP and UDP traffic.

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